Oil


Oil
   Kurdistan possesses some of the largest oil reserves in the world. Kirkuk, long a bone of contention between the Iraqi Kurds and the Iraqi government, holds by far the most productive resources in northern Iraq, which largely explains why the area has been so hotly contested. Mulla Mustafa Barzani tried to solicit the support of the United States during his rebellion by declaring he would turn over the oil fields to the United States and make an independent Kurdistan a friend of the United States in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)!
   An important oil pipeline carries the oil from Kirkuk through some of the Kurdish areas of Turkey but skirts south of the Iraqi Kurdish area. Before the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq, much of the financial resources of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) in northern Iraq stemmed from the 13 percent of Iraq's oil receipts it received from the United Nations, as well as the fees it collected from the surreptitious oil trade that traversed it from Iraq to Turkey. Presently, the KRG receives 17 percent of Iraq's financial resources, which mainly come for oil receipts. The little oil that Turkey produces comes from Kurdish areas centered around the town of Batman east of Diyarbakir. With the discovery of the huge new Rumailah oil fields in southern Iraq, the older Kirkuk sites have lost some of their earlier importance.
   After 2003, one of the major issues between the KRG and the central government in Baghdad involved the usage of oil fields in northern Iraq. The KRG argued that Article 115 of the new Iraqi constitution stated the supremacy of regional laws over federal laws and could be invoked if no agreement was reached on the management of oil and gas resources and the distribution of proceeds. Article 112 of the constitution permitted the Iraqi government only an administrative role confined to the handling (that is, exporting and marketing) of the extracted oil and gas from existing producing fields. The elected authorities of the regions and producing governorates were now entitled to administer and supervise the extraction process. Furthermore, since the Iraqi constitution was silent on undeveloped fields or any new fields, the regions and governorates would have all the controls. In 2009, the KRG began leasing new oil concessions to foreign companies, but the Iraqi central government continued to maintain that this was unconstitutional. The debate threatened the very foundation of the KRG/Iraqi relationship.

Historical Dictionary of the Kurds. .

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Oil — (oil), n. [OE. oile, OF. oile, F. huile, fr. L. oleum; akin to Gr. ?. Cf. {Olive}.] Any one of a great variety of unctuous combustible substances, more viscous than and not miscible with water; as, olive oil, whale oil, rock oil, etc. They are of …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Oil! —   1st edition …   Wikipedia

  • oïl — [ ɔjl ] adv. d affirmation • 1080 « oui »; a. fr. o « cela »; du lat. hoc et il ♦ Langue d oïl : ensemble des dialectes (picard, bourguignon, anglo normand, francien …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • oil — [oil] n. [ME oile < OFr < L oleum, oil, olive oil < Gr elaion, (olive) oil, akin to elaia,OLIVE] 1. any of various kinds of greasy, combustible substances obtained from animal, vegetable, and mineral sources: oils are liquid at ordinary… …   English World dictionary

  • oil — oil; oil·dom; oil·er; oil·field·er; oil·i·ly; oil·i·ness; oil·less; oil·let; oil·man; oil·om·e·ter; oil·skinned; oil·less·ness; oil·tight·ness; …   English syllables

  • oil — Ⅰ. oil UK US /ɔɪl/ noun [U] ► NATURAL RESOURCES a thick liquid that comes from under the Earth s surface and is used as a fuel and for making plastics, etc.: »More than 6,000 rigs were drilling for oil and gas. »The oil price increase is a… …   Financial and business terms

  • OIL — steht für: Oïl Sprachen, eine Gruppe galloromanischer Sprachen, siehe Langues d’oïl OIL steht für Ontology Inference Layer, eine semantische Auszeichnungssprache Office Infrastructures et logistique Luxembourg, Amt für Gebäude, Anlagen und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • oil — vb Oil, grease, lubricate, anoint, cream all mean to smear or treat with an oily, fatty, or greasy substance, but they vary greatly in their implications of the substance used and the purpose for which it is employed and in their idiomatic… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Oil — steht für: Oïl Sprachen, eine Gruppe galloromanischer Sprachen, siehe Langues d’oïl OIL steht für Ontology Inference Layer, eine semantische Auszeichnungssprache Office Infrastructures et logistique Luxembourg, Amt für Gebäude, Anlagen und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • oil|y — «OY lee», adjective, oil|i|er, oil|i|est. 1. of oil: »an oily smell. 2. containing oil: »an oily salad dressing …   Useful english dictionary

  • Oil — Oil, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Oiled}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Oiling}.] To smear or rub over with oil; to lubricate with oil; to anoint with oil. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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